Statewide Cataloging Standards Illinois State Library
Purpose And Scope
This Illinois Statewide Cataloging Standards document provides Illinois libraries with a concise, yet inclusive cataloging reference tool, designed to enforce uniform control over bibliographic records that comprise the Regional Library System's Local Library System Automation Programs (LLSAPs). Uniform bibliographic practices are vital to online searching interoperability. Therefore, cataloging standards provide the foundation for achieving reliable online access to the vast information resources contained within the collections of Illinois' multitype libraries. These standards are not intended to serve as a manual of data entry procedures. Rather, the intent of this document is to prescribe adherence to nationally accepted cataloging standards and guidelines that are crucial to the viability of shared bibliographic databases. All Illinois libraries are expected to follow these standards.
This Illinois Statewide Cataloging Standards document represents the collective work of the members of the Statewide Cataloging Standards Committee, complemented by the review, guidance, and endorsement of the Illinois Library System Directors and the Illinois State Library. The broad topical areas covered include:
- core LLSAP requirements;
- levels of bibliographic description and authority control;
- source of catalog records;
- cataloging process;
- continuing education and certification;
- list of bibliographic tools.
These encompassing, yet succinct topic areas were written to be broad enough to avoid the need for continual revisions, yet narrow enough to provide clear guidelines. Overall, the establishment of cataloging standards for Illinois libraries represents one important manifestation of the statewide vision of achieving enhanced, reliable and ubiquitous resource sharing for all Illinois citizens.
Core LLSAP Requirements
The LLSAP databases are the underpinnings for the Virtual Illinois Catalog. Quality and integrity must be the hallmark of cataloging efforts in the State of Illinois. The Illinois Statewide Cataloging Standards Committee lists the following core LLSAP requirements for staff throughout the State who add new bibliographic records or edit existing bibliographic records for their LLSAP databases.
Levels of Bibliographic Description
Bibliographic records for all materials requiring title-specific access must conform to the second level of bibliographic description, as outlined in the latest edition of Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, (2nd ed., 2002 revision). (Note: These standards do not apply to temporary records such as on-order records, records used to circulate equipment, or generic records used to circulate ephemera or materials for which title-specific access is not desired.) Those records not requiring title-specific access should be appropriately designated by a vendor-specific code which will prevent them from going through the State OCLC batch loading process, or with a MARC 945 tag with "DO NOT SET" as textual content.
Source of Catalog Records
OCLC is the prescribed source of MARC bibliographic records. Cataloging must comply with the standards in MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data (latest ed.) and Bibliographic Formats and Standards (OCLC) (latest edition).
Effective April 2, 2004, OCLC must be the source of all records that enter an LLSAP database. Until that time, records originating from Library of Congress are acceptable if they have the correct OCLC number in the appropriate MARC field. OCLC records can come from: OCLC, MARCIVE, another LLSAP or ILCSO library, or a vendor (if the vendor's record originated from OCLC). OCLC records that come from an indirect source must be as complete as the record found in OCLC.
The Cataloging Process
The process of cataloging requires full examination of the actual material being cataloged or an appropriate surrogate, such as a photocopy. Bibliographic description should be based on the latest edition of Anglo-American Cataloging Rules and the current MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data. The cataloger should be aware of the various rule changes and interpretations, as described in Library of Congress Rule Interpretations.
Continuing Education and Certification
The prescribed standards contained within this document apply to all ILLINET library staff members who contribute or edit the bibliographic and item records that comprise any of the LLSAPs. Fundamentally, these standards were developed for professional librarians, as well as all technical support staff that either work directly in an LLSAP database or who may indirectly affect the content of an LLSAP through the export of their libraries' bibliographic records into the shared database. Due to the need to achieve compliance among staff that presents varying levels of expertise, the Illinois Statewide Cataloging Standards specifies targeted training and certification made available through a variety of workshop offerings, online training modules and testing. Through widespread dissemination of these cataloging standards, availability of training opportunities, and online supervision of cataloging practices, Illinois libraries will be able to provide a level of bibliographic control that will facilitate statewide adaptation to new technology platforms and future iterations of shared bibliographic databases.
Levels of cataloging
For the purposes of this document, we have identified three broad levels of cataloging functions:
- Barcoding: Selecting correct records already in the local database, attaching and adding item only, no editing
- Copy cataloging: Finding the correct record in the local database and editing the record if necessary. If the correct record is not in the database, searching OCLC, importing the record, and doing all necessary editing.
- Original cataloging: Using OCLC to create new bibliographic records from "scratch" or by using existing copy from "near matches."
Every staff member involved in the cataloging process should possess a core set of skills. These skills differ based on the level of cataloging the person is doing, as described in this chart:
|Competency||Barcoders||Copy Catalogers||Original Catalogers|
|Have a basic understanding of cataloging terminology||X||X||X|
|Know where to look on the resource for cataloging information, i.e., the prescribed sources of information||X||X||X|
|Know how to interpret a MARC record||X||X||X|
|Know how to search their local database||X||X||X|
|Know how to choose the correct bibliographic record that matches a resource||X||X||X|
|Know how to add an item||X||X||X|
|Be able to identify problems with the database or a record that should be reported to their supervisor||X||X||X|
|Have a basic understanding of AACR and descriptive cataloging||X||X|
|Have a basic understanding of MARC and how AACR principles translate into MARC||X||X|
|Have a thorough knowledge of searching in their local database and OCLC||X||X|
|Have a basic understanding of OCLC and how OCLC records are transferred into their local database and what changes their local system makes to the records||X||X|
|Have a basic understanding of subject analysis using appropriate thesauri||X||X|
|Have a basic understanding of authority control and how authority records impact the local catalog||X||X|
|Have a basic understanding of how their system indexes and displays MARC fields||X||X|
|Have a basic understanding of an appropriate classification scheme||X||X|
|Be able to identify problems that should be reported to OCLC||X||X|
|Have a thorough understanding of AACR and descriptive cataloging||X|
|Have a thorough understanding of MARC and how AACR principles translate into MARC||X|
|Have a thorough understanding of OCLC and how to create an original record on OCLC||X|
|Have a thorough understanding of subject analysis using LCSH and any other appropriate thesauri||X|
|Have a thorough understanding of authority records and authority control||X|
|Have a thorough understanding of how their system indexes and displays MARC fields||X|
|Have a thorough understanding of classification using appropriate schemes; i.e. Dewey Decimal Classification, Library of Congress Classification||X|
|Know how to report problems to OCLC||X|
Cataloging guidelines and decisions are based on the latest edition of the following bibliographic tools:
- Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR2). Chicago, American Library Association.
- Bibliographic Formats and Standards. Dublin OH, OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc.
- Cataloging Service Bulletin. Washington, D.C. Cataloging Distribution Service, Library of Congress.
- CONSER Cataloging Manual. Washington, D.C. Cataloging Distribution Service, Library of Congress.
- The Dublin Core Metadata Element Set: An American National Standard. Bethesda, MD, NISO Press.
- Free-Floating Subdivisions: An Alphabetical Index. Washington, D.C. Cataloging Distribution Service, Library of Congress.
- Guidelines on Subject Access to Individual Works of Fiction, Drama, Etc. Chicago, American Library Association.
- Library of Congress-Program for Cooperative Cataloging Policy Statements (LC-PCC PSs). Washington, D.C. Library of Congress. Part of the RDA Toolkit; click Resources tab
- Library of Congress Rule Interpretations. Washington, D.C. Cataloging Distribution Service, Library of Congress.
- Library of Congress Subject Headings. Washington, D.C. Cataloging Distribution Service, Library of Congress.
- MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data. Washington, D.C. Cataloging Distribution Service, Library of Congress.
- RDA Toolkit: Resource Description and Access. Chicago, IL: American Library Association.
- Subject Cataloging Manual. Washington, D.C. Cataloging Distribution Service, Library of Congress.
- Subject Headings for Children: A List of Subject Headings Used by the Library of Congress with Abridged Dewey Numbers Added, by Lois Winkel. Albany, NY, Forest Press.